Paper 2022/190

Short-lived zero-knowledge proofs and signatures

Arasu Arun, Joseph Bonneau, and Jeremy Clark


We introduce the short-lived proof, a non-interactive proof of knowledge with a novel feature: after a specified period of time, the proof is no longer convincing. This time-delayed loss of soundness happens "naturally" without further involvement from the prover or any third party. We propose formal definitions for short-lived proofs as well as the special case of short-lived signatures. We show several practical constructions built using verifiable delay functions (VDFs). The key idea in our approach is to allow any party to forge any proof by executing a large sequential computation. Some constructions achieve a stronger property called reusable forgeability in which one sequential computation allows forging an arbitrary number of proofs of different statements. Our work also introduces two novel types of VDFs, re-randomizable VDFs and zero-knowledge VDFs, which may be of independent interest.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
zero knowledgeRSAdigital signaturesVDFs
Contact author(s)
jbonneau @ gmail com
aa7977 @ nyu edu
j clark @ concordia ca
2022-02-20: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Arasu Arun and Joseph Bonneau and Jeremy Clark},
      title = {Short-lived zero-knowledge proofs and signatures},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/190},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
Note: In order to protect the privacy of readers, does not use cookies or embedded third party content.