Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2022/161

D-KODE: Mechanism to Generate and Maintain a Billion Keys

Easwar Vivek Mangipudi and Aniket Kate

Abstract: This work considers two prominent key management problems in the blockchain space: (i) allowing a (distributed) blockchain system to securely airdrop/send some tokens to a potential client Bob, who is yet to set up the required cryptographic key for the system, and (ii) creating a (distributed) cross-chain bridge that allows interoperability at scale by allowing a (changing) set of nodes in a blockchain to perform transactions on the other blockchain. The existing solutions for the first problem need Bob to either generate and maintain private keys locally for the first time in his life — a usability bottleneck — or place trust in third-party custodial services — a privacy and censorship nightmare. Towards solving both problems in a distributed setting against a threshold-bounded adversary, distributed key generation (DKG) based solutions are actively employed; here, a set of servers generate the transactions in a distributed manner and link them to clients’ ids. Nevertheless, these solutions introduce computation and communication overhead that is linear in the number of keys and do not scale well even for a million keys, especially for proactive security against a mobile adversary. This work presents a Keys-On-Demand (D-KODE) distributed protocol suite that lets the blockchain system securely generate the public key of any Bob against a mobile threshold adversary. Multiple servers, here, compute discrete-log private/public keys on the fly through distributed pseudo-random function evaluations on the queried public string. D-KODE also introduces a proactive security mechanism for the employed black-box secret-sharing based DKG to maintain the system’s longitudinal security. The proposed protocol scales well for a very high number of keys as its communication and computation complexity is independent of the number of keys. Our experimental analysis demonstrates that, for a 20-node network with a 2/3 honest majority, D-KODE starts to outperform the state of the art as the number of keys reaches 94K. D-KODE is practical as it takes less than 100msec to generate a secret key for a single-threaded server in a 20-node setup

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Distributed key generation (DKG), Black box secret sharing, Distributed PRF

Date: received 12 Feb 2022

Contact author: emangipu at purdue edu

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20220220:200209 (All versions of this report)

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