Paper 2022/1373

ZKBdf: A ZKBoo-based Quantum-Secure Verifiable Delay Function with Prover-secret

Teik Guan Tan, Singapore University of Technology and Design
Vishal Sharma, Queen's University Belfast
Zengpeng Li, Shandong University
Pawel Szalachowski, Singapore University of Technology and Design
Jianying Zhou, Singapore University of Technology and Design

Since the formalization of Verifiable Delay Functions (VDF) by Boneh et al. in 2018, VDFs have been adopted for use in blockchain consensus protocols and random beacon implementations. However, the impending threat to VDF-based applications comes in the form of Shor’s algorithm running on quantum computers in the future which can break the discrete logarithm and integer factorization problems that existing VDFs are based on. Clearly, there is a need for quantum-secure VDFs. In this paper, we propose ZKBdf, which makes use of ZKBoo, a zero knowledge proof system for verifiable computation, as the basis for realizing a quantum-secure VDF. We describe the algorithm, provide the security proofs, implement the scheme and measure the execution and size requirements. In addition, as ZKBdf extends the standard VDF with an extra “Prover-secret” feature, new VDF use-cases are also explored.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Verifiable Delay Function Zero-Knowledge Proof Post-Quantum Cryptography
Contact author(s)
tanteikg @ gmail com
vishal_sharma2012 @ hotmail com
zengpengliz @ gmail com
pjszal @ gmail com
jianying_zhou @ sutd edu sg
2022-10-14: approved
2022-10-12: received
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      author = {Teik Guan Tan and Vishal Sharma and Zengpeng Li and Pawel Szalachowski and Jianying Zhou},
      title = {ZKBdf: A ZKBoo-based Quantum-Secure Verifiable Delay Function with Prover-secret},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/1373},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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