Paper 2022/1352

aPlonK : Aggregated PlonK from Multi-Polynomial Commitment Schemes

Miguel Ambrona, Nomadic Labs
Marc Beunardeau, Nomadic Labs
Anne-Laure Schmitt, Nomadic Labs
Raphaël R. Toledo, Nomadic Labs

PlonK is a prominent universal and updatable zk-SNARK for general circuit satisfiability. We present aPlonK, a variant of PlonK that reduces the proof size and verification time when multiple statements are proven in a batch. Both the aggregated proof size and the verification complexity of aPlonK are logarithmic in the number of aggregated statements. Our main building block, inspired by the techniques developed in SnarkPack (Gailly, Maller, Nitulescu, FC 2022), is a multi-polynomial commitment scheme, a new primitive that generalizes polynomial commitment schemes. Our techniques also include a mechanism for involving committed data into PlonK statements very efficiently, which can be of independent interest. We also implement an open-source industrial-grade library for zero-knowledge PlonK proofs with support for aPlonK. Our experimental results show that our techniques are suitable for real-world applications (such as blockchain rollups), achieving significant performance improvements in proof size and verification time.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
zero-knowledge proofs PlonK proof aggregation polynomial commitments
Contact author(s)
mac ambrona @ gmail com
marc beunardeau @ nomadic-labs com
anne laure @ nomadic-labs com
raphael r toledo @ gmail com
2022-11-10: revised
2022-10-10: received
See all versions
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Miguel Ambrona and Marc Beunardeau and Anne-Laure Schmitt and Raphaël R. Toledo},
      title = {aPlonK : Aggregated PlonK from Multi-Polynomial Commitment Schemes},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/1352},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
Note: In order to protect the privacy of readers, does not use cookies or embedded third party content.