Paper 2022/1257

One-Time Programs from Commodity Hardware

Harry Eldridge, Johns Hopkins University
Aarushi Goel, NTT Research
Matthew Green, Johns Hopkins University
Abhishek Jain, Johns Hopkins University
Maximilian Zinkus, Johns Hopkins University

One-time programs, originally formulated by Goldwasser et al. [CRYPTO'08], are a powerful cryptographic primitive with compelling applications. Known solutions for one-time programs, however, require specialized secure hardware that is not widely available (or, alternatively, access to blockchains and very strong cryptographic tools). In this work we investigate the possibility of realizing one-time programs from a recent and now more commonly available hardware functionality: the counter lockbox. A counter lockbox is a stateful functionality that protects an encryption key under a user-specified password, and enforces a limited number of incorrect guesses. Counter lockboxes have become widely available in consumer devices and cloud platforms. We show that counter lockboxes can be used to realize one-time programs for general functionalities. We develop a number of techniques to reduce the number of counter lockboxes required for our constructions, that may be of independent interest.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
A minor revision of an IACR publication in TCC 2022
one-time programs hardware tokens
Contact author(s)
hme @ cs jhu edu
aarushi goel @ ntt-research com
mgreen @ cs jhu edu
abhishek @ cs jhu edu
zinkus @ cs jhu edu
2022-09-26: approved
2022-09-21: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Harry Eldridge and Aarushi Goel and Matthew Green and Abhishek Jain and Maximilian Zinkus},
      title = {One-Time Programs from Commodity Hardware},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/1257},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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