Paper 2022/1212

VoteXX: A Solution to Improper Influence in Voter-Verifiable Elections

David Chaum, xx network
Richard T. Carback, xx network
Jeremy Clark, Concordia University
Chao Liu, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Mahdi Nejadgholi, Concordia University
Bart Preneel, KU Leuven
Alan T. Sherman, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Mario Yaksetig, University of Porto, xx network
Zeyuan Yin, Zhejiang University
Filip Zagórski, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
Bingsheng Zhang, Zhejiang University

We solve a long-standing challenge to the integrity of votes cast without the supervision of a voting booth: “improper influence,” which we define as any combination of vote buying and voter coercion. Our approach allows each voter, or their trusted agent(s), to cancel their vote in a way that is unstoppable, irrevocable, and forever unattributable to the voter. In particular, our approach enhances security of online, remote, public-sector elections, for which there is a growing need and the threat of improper influence is most acute. In this extended abstract, we introduce the new approach, compare it with previous methods, and concisely summarize the protocols. In our full paper, we give detailed cryptographic protocols, show how they can be applied to several voting settings, describe our implementation in a full voting system called VoteXX, and provide UC proofs. Our system protects against the strongest adversary considered in prior related work and is suitable for widespread use in public elections.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Published elsewhere. E-Vote-ID 2022
online voting high-integrity voting system voter-verifiable elections
Contact author(s)
mario yaksetig @ fe up pt
2022-09-14: last of 2 revisions
2022-09-13: received
See all versions
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {David Chaum and Richard T. Carback and Jeremy Clark and Chao Liu and Mahdi Nejadgholi and Bart Preneel and Alan T. Sherman and Mario Yaksetig and Zeyuan Yin and Filip Zagórski and Bingsheng Zhang},
      title = {VoteXX: A Solution to Improper Influence in Voter-Verifiable Elections},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/1212},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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