Paper 2022/1151

A Survey on Exotic Signatures for Post-Quantum Blockchain: Challenges & Research Directions

Maxime Buser, Monash University
Rafael Dowsley, Monash University
Muhammed F. Esgin, Monash University, CSIRO's Data61
Clémentine Gritti, University of Canterbury
Shabnam Kasra Kermanshahi, RMIT University
Veronika Kuchta, University of Queensland
Jason T. LeGrow, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Joseph K. Liu, Monash University
Raphael C.-W. Phan, Monash University Malaysia
Amin Sakzad, Monash University
Ron Steinfeld, Monash University
Jiangshan Yu, Monash University

Blockchain technology provides efficient and secure solutions to various online activities by utilizing a wide range of cryptographic tools. In this paper, we survey the existing literature on post-quantum secure digital signatures that possess exotic advanced features and which are crucial cryptographic tools used in the blockchain ecosystem for (i) account management, (ii) consensus efficiency, (iii) empowering scriptless blockchain, and (iv) privacy. The exotic signatures that we particularly focus on in this work are the following: multi-/aggregate, threshold, adaptor, blind and ring signatures. Herein the term exotic refers to signatures with properties which are not just beyond the norm for signatures e.g. unforgeability, but also imbue new forms of functionalities. Our treatment of such exotic signatures includes discussions on existing challenges and future research directions in the post-quantum space. We hope that this article will help to foster further research to make post-quantum cryptography more accessible so that blockchain systems can be made ready in advance of the approaching quantum threats.

Note: Publication venue and DOI are added

Available format(s)
Public-key cryptography
Publication info
Published elsewhere. ACM Computing Surveys
post-quantum cryptography digital signatures blockchain applications
Contact author(s)
maxime buser @ monash edu
rafael dowsley @ monash edu
muhammed esgin @ monash edu
clementine gritti @ canterbury ac nz
shabnam kasra kermanshahi @ rmit edu au
v kuchta @ uq edu au
jlegrow @ vt edu
joseph liu @ monash edu
raphael phan @ monash edu
amin sakzad @ monash edu
ron steinfeld @ monash edu
jiangshan yu @ monash edu
2022-12-06: revised
2022-09-05: received
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      author = {Maxime Buser and Rafael Dowsley and Muhammed F. Esgin and Clémentine Gritti and Shabnam Kasra Kermanshahi and Veronika Kuchta and Jason T. LeGrow and Joseph K. Liu and Raphael C.-W. Phan and Amin Sakzad and Ron Steinfeld and Jiangshan Yu},
      title = {A Survey on Exotic Signatures for Post-Quantum Blockchain: Challenges & Research Directions},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/1151},
      year = {2022},
      doi = {10.1145/3572771},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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