Paper 2022/107

Payment with Dispute Resolution: A Protocol For Reimbursing Frauds' Victims

Aydin Abadi and Steven J. Murdoch


An "Authorised Push Payment" (APP) fraud refers to the case where fraudsters deceive a victim to make payments to bank accounts controlled by them. The total amount of money stolen via APP frauds is swiftly growing. Although regulators have provided guidelines to improve victims' protection, the guidelines are vague and the victims are not receiving sufficient protection. To facilitate victims' reimbursement, in this work, we propose a protocol called "Payment with Dispute Resolution" (PwDR) and formally define it. The protocol lets an honest victim prove its innocence to a third-party dispute resolver while preserving the protocol participants' privacy. It makes black-box use of a standard online banking system. We evaluate its asymptotic cost and runtime via a prototype implementation. Our evaluation indicates that the protocol is efficient. It imposes only O(1) overheads to the customer and bank. Also, it takes a dispute resolver 0.09 milliseconds to settle a dispute between the two parties.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
Financial frauddispute resolutionblockchainsmart contractstransparencyauthorised push paymentimplementation
Contact author(s)
aydin abadi @ ed ac uk
s murdoch @ ucl ac uk
2022-01-31: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Aydin Abadi and Steven J.  Murdoch},
      title = {Payment with Dispute Resolution: A Protocol For Reimbursing Frauds' Victims},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/107},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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