Paper 2021/982

Quantum Implementation and Resource Estimates for RECTANGLE and KNOT

Anubhab Baksi, Kyungbae Jang, Gyeongju Song, Hwajeong Seo, and Zejun Xiang


With the advancement of the quantum computing technologies, a large body of research work is dedicated to revisit the security claims for ciphers being used. An adversary with access to a quantum computer can employ certain new attacks which would not be possible in the current pre-quantum era. In particular, the Grover's search algorithm is a generic attack against symmetric key cryptographic primitives, that can reduce the search complexity to square root. To apply the Grover's search algorithm, one needs to implement the target cipher as a quantum circuit. Although relatively recent, this field of research has attracted serious attention from the research community, as several ciphers (like AES, GIFT, SPECK, SIMON etc.) are being implemented as quantum circuits. In this work, we target the lightweight block cipher RECTANGLE and the Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) KNOT which is based on RECTANGLE; and implement those in the ProjectQ library (an open-source quantum compatible library designed by researchers from ETH Zurich). AEADs are considerably more complex to implement than a typical block/stream cipher, and ours is among the first works to do this.

Available format(s)
Secret-key cryptography
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Minor revision. Quantum Information Processing
Lightweight CryptographyQuantum ComputingRECTANGLEKNOTGrover's search
Contact author(s)
anubhab001 @ e ntu edu sg
2022-02-24: last of 2 revisions
2021-07-23: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Anubhab Baksi and Kyungbae Jang and Gyeongju Song and Hwajeong Seo and Zejun Xiang},
      title = {Quantum Implementation and Resource Estimates for RECTANGLE and KNOT},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/982},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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