Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2021/982

Quantum Implementation and Resource Estimates for RECTANGLE and KNOT

Anubhab Baksi and Kyungbae Jang and Gyeongju Song and Hwajeong Seo and Zejun Xiang

Abstract: With the advancement of the quantum computing technologies, a large body of research work is dedicated to revisit the security claims for ciphers being used. An adversary with access to a quantum computer can employ certain new attacks which would not be possible in the current pre-quantum era. In particular, the Grover's search algorithm is a generic attack against symmetric key cryptographic primitives, that can reduce the search complexity to square root. To apply the Grover's search algorithm, one needs to implement the target cipher as a quantum circuit. Although relatively recent, this field of research has attracted serious attention from the research community, as several ciphers (like AES, GIFT, SPECK, SIMON etc.) are being implemented as quantum circuits. In this work, we target the lightweight block cipher RECTANGLE and the Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) KNOT which is based on RECTANGLE; and implement those in the ProjectQ library (an open-source quantum compatible library designed by researchers from ETH Zurich). AEADs are considerably more complex to implement than a typical block/stream cipher, and ours is among the first works to do this.

Category / Keywords: secret-key cryptography / Lightweight Cryptography, Quantum Computing, RECTANGLE, KNOT, Grover's search

Original Publication (with minor differences): Quantum Information Processing

Date: received 22 Jul 2021, last revised 14 Oct 2021

Contact author: anubhab001 at e ntu edu sg

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20211014:055502 (All versions of this report)

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