Paper 2021/811

A General Purpose Transpiler for Fully Homomorphic Encryption

Shruthi Gorantala, Rob Springer, Sean Purser-Haskell, William Lam, Royce Wilson, Asra Ali, Eric P. Astor, Itai Zukerman, Sam Ruth, Christoph Dibak, Phillipp Schoppmann, Sasha Kulankhina, Alain Forget, David Marn, Cameron Tew, Rafael Misoczki, Bernat Guillen, Xinyu Ye, Dennis Kraft, Damien Desfontaines, Aishe Krishnamurthy, Miguel Guevara, Irippuge Milinda Perera, Yurii Sushko, and Bryant Gipson


Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) is an encryption scheme which enables computation on encrypted data without revealing the underlying data. While there have been many advances in the field of FHE, developing programs using FHE still requires expertise in cryptography. In this white paper, we present a fully homomorphic encryption transpiler that allows developers to convert high-level code (e.g., C++) that works on unencrypted data into high-level code that operates on encrypted data. Thus, our transpiler makes transformations possible on encrypted data. Our transpiler builds on Google's open-source XLS SDK ( and uses an off-the-shelf FHE library, TFHE (, to perform low-level FHE operations. The transpiler design is modular, which means the underlying FHE library as well as the high-level input and output languages can vary. This modularity will help accelerate FHE research by providing an easy way to compare arbitrary programs in different FHE schemes side-by-side. We hope this lays the groundwork for eventual easy adoption of FHE by software developers. As a proof-of-concept, we are releasing an experimental transpiler ( as open-source software.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
fully homomorphic encryption
Contact author(s)
milinda @ google com
2021-06-16: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Shruthi Gorantala and Rob Springer and Sean Purser-Haskell and William Lam and Royce Wilson and Asra Ali and Eric P.  Astor and Itai Zukerman and Sam Ruth and Christoph Dibak and Phillipp Schoppmann and Sasha Kulankhina and Alain Forget and David Marn and Cameron Tew and Rafael Misoczki and Bernat Guillen and Xinyu Ye and Dennis Kraft and Damien Desfontaines and Aishe Krishnamurthy and Miguel Guevara and Irippuge Milinda Perera and Yurii Sushko and Bryant Gipson},
      title = {A General Purpose Transpiler for Fully Homomorphic Encryption},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/811},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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