Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2021/649

On the Algebraic Immunity - Resiliency trade-off, implications for Goldreich's Pseudorandom Generator

Aurélien Dupin and Pierrick Méaux and Mélissa Rossi

Abstract: Goldreich's pseudorandom generator is a well-known building block for many theoretical cryptographic constructions from multi-party computation to indistinguishability obfuscation. Its unique efficiency comes from the use of random local functions: each bit of the output is computed by applying some fixed public n-variable Boolean function f to a random public size-n tuple of distinct input bits. The characteristics that a Boolean function f must have to ensure pseudorandomness is a puzzling issue. It has been studied in several works and particularly by Applebaum and Lovett (STOC 2016) who showed that resiliency and algebraic immunity are key parameters in this purpose. In this paper, we propose the first study on Boolean functions that reach together maximal algebraic immunity and high resiliency. 1) We assess the possible consequences of the asymptotic existence of such optimal functions. We show how they allow to build functions reaching all possible algebraic immunity-resiliency trade-offs (respecting the algebraic immunity and Siegenthaler bounds). We provide a new bound on the minimal number of variables n, and thus on the minimal locality, necessary to ensure a secure Goldreich pseudorandom generator. Our results come with a granularity level depending on the strength of our assumptions, from none to the conjectured asymptotic existence of optimal functions. 2) We extensively analyze the possible existence and the properties of such optimal functions. In a first step, we naturally focus on existing families of Boolean functions that are known optimal with respect to their algebraic immunity, starting by the promising XOR-MAJ functions. Interestingly, we were able to show that these families do not reach optimality with respect to their resiliency, and they could be beaten by optimal functions if our conjecture is verified. Thus, one needs to look in another direction for constructing optimal functions. We introduce necessary and sufficient conditions for the construction of optimal functions. Finally, we prove the existence of optimal functions in low number of variables by experimentally exhibiting some of them up to 12 variables. This directly provides better candidates for Goldreich's pseudorandom generator than the existing XOR-MAJ candidates for polynomial stretches from 2 to 6.

Category / Keywords: Boolean functions, local PRG, algebraic immunity, resiliency

Date: received 18 May 2021

Contact author: aurelien dupin at thalesgroup com, pierrick meaux@uclouvain be, melissa rossi@ssi gouv fr

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Version: 20210520:202817 (All versions of this report)

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