**Communication Complexity of Private simultaneous Quantum Messages Protocols**

*Akinori Kawachi and Harumichi Nishimura*

**Abstract: **The private simultaneous messages (PSM) model is a non-interactive version of the multiparty secure computation (MPC), which has been intensively studied to examine the communication cost of the secure computation. We consider its quantum counterpart, the private simultaneous quantum messages (PSQM) model, and examine the advantages of quantum communication and prior entanglement of this model.

In the PSQM model, $k$ parties $P_1,\ldots,P_k$ initially share a common random string (or entangled states in a stronger setting), and they have private classical inputs $x_1,\ldots, x_k$. Every $P_i$ generates a quantum message from the private input $x_i$ and the shared random string (entangled states), and then sends it to the referee $R$. Receiving the messages from the $k$ parties, $R$ computes $F(x_1,\ldots,x_k)$ from the messages. Then, $R$ learns nothing except for $F(x_1,\ldots,x_k)$ as the privacy condition.

We obtain the following results for this PSQM model. ($i$) We demonstrate that the privacy condition inevitably increases the communication cost in the two-party PSQM model as well as in the classical case presented by Applebaum, Holenstein, Mishra, and Shayevitz [Journal of Cryptology 33(3), 916--953 (2020)]. In particular, we prove a lower bound $(3-o(1))n$ of the communication complexity in PSQM protocols with a shared random string for random Boolean functions of $2n$-bit input, which is larger than the trivial upper bound $2n$ of the communication complexity without the privacy condition. ($ii$) We demonstrate a factor two gap between the communication complexity of PSQM protocols with shared entangled states and with shared random strings by designing a multiparty PSQM protocol with shared entangled states for a total function that extends the two-party equality function. ($iii$) We demonstrate an exponential gap between the communication complexity of PSQM protocols with shared entangled states and with shared random strings for a two-party partial function.

**Category / Keywords: **cryptographic protocols / communication complexity, private simultaneous messages, quantum protocols, secure multi-party computation

**Original Publication**** (in the same form): **ITC 2021

**Date: **received 14 May 2021

**Contact author: **kawachi at info mie-u ac jp

**Available format(s): **PDF | BibTeX Citation

**Version: **20210517:063712 (All versions of this report)

**Short URL: **ia.cr/2021/636

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