Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2021/531

LogStack: Stacked Garbling with $O(b \log b)$ Computation

David Heath and Vladimir Kolesnikov

Abstract: Secure two party computation (2PC) of arbitrary programs can be efficiently achieved using garbled circuits (GC). Until recently, it was widely believed that a GC proportional to the entire program, including parts of the program that are entirely discarded due to conditional branching, must be transmitted over a network. Recent work shows that this belief is false, and that communication proportional only to the longest program execution path suffices (Heath and Kolesnikov, CRYPTO 20, [HK20a]). Although this recent work reduces needed communication, it increases computation. For a conditional with $b$ branches, the players use $O(b^2)$ computation (traditional GC uses only $O(b)$).

Our scheme LogStack reduces stacked garbling computation from $O(b^2)$ to $O(b \log b)$ with no increase in communication over [HK20a]. The cause of [HK20a]'s increased computation is the oblivious collection of garbage labels that emerge during the evaluation of inactive branches. Garbage is collected by a multiplexer that is costly to generate. At a high level, we redesign stacking and garbage collection to avoid quadratic scaling.

Our construction is also more space efficient: [HK20a] algorithms require $O(b)$ space, while ours use only $O(\log b)$ space. This space efficiency allows even modest setups to handle large numbers of branches.

[HK20a] assumes a random oracle (RO). We track the source of this need, formalize a simple and natural added assumption on the base garbling scheme, and remove reliance on RO: LogStack is secure in the standard model. Nevertheless, LogStack can be instantiated with typical GC tricks based on non-standard assumptions, such as free XOR and half-gates, and hence can be implemented with high efficiency.

We implemented LogStack (in the RO model, based on half-gates garbling) and report performance. In terms of wall-clock time and for fewer than $16$ branches, our performance is comparable to [HK20a]'s; for larger branching factors, our approach clearly outperforms [HK20a]. For example, given $1024$ branches, our approach is $31\times$ faster.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / 2PC, Garbled Circuits, Conditional Branching, Stacked Garbling

Original Publication (with minor differences): IACR-EUROCRYPT-2021

Date: received 21 Apr 2021

Contact author: heath davidanthony at gatech edu, kolesnikov at gatech edu

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20210423:122833 (All versions of this report)

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