Paper 2021/355

A Hard Crystal - Implementing Dilithium on Reconfigurable Hardware

Georg Land, Pascal Sasdrich, and Tim Güneysu


CRYSTALS-Dilithium as a lattice-based digital signature scheme has been selected as a finalist in the PQC standardization process of NIST. As part of this selection, a variety of software implementations have been evaluated regarding their performance and memory requirements for platforms like x86 or ARM Cortex-M4. In this work, we present a first set of FPGA implementations for the low-end Xilinx Artix-7 platform, evaluating the peculiarities of the scheme in hardware, reflecting all available round-3 parameter sets. As a key component in our analysis, we present results for a specifically adapted NTT core for the Dilithium cryptosystem, optimizing this component for an optimal LUT and FF utilization by efficient use of special purpose DSPs. Presenting our results, we aim to shed further light on the performance of lattice-based cryptography in low-cost and high-throughput configurations and their respective potential use-cases in practice.

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Publication info
Published elsewhere. CARDIS-2021
FPGA Dilithium PQC NTT
Contact author(s)
georg land @ rub de
2021-09-29: revised
2021-03-18: received
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      author = {Georg Land and Pascal Sasdrich and Tim Güneysu},
      title = {A Hard Crystal - Implementing Dilithium on Reconfigurable Hardware},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/355},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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