Paper 2021/1628

SoK: Mitigation of Front-running in Decentralized Finance

Carsten Baum
James Hsin-yu Chiang
Bernardo David
Tore Kasper Frederiksen
Lorenzo Gentile

Front-running is the malicious, and often illegal, act of both manipulating the order of pending trades and injecting additional trades to make a profit at the cost of other users. In decentralized finance (DeFi), front-running strategies exploit both public knowledge of user trades from transactions pending on the network and the miner's ability to determine the final transaction order. Given the financial loss and increased transaction load resulting from adversarial front-running in decentralized finance, novel cryptographic protocols have been proposed to mitigate such attacks in the permission-less blockchain setting. We systematize and discuss the state-of-the-art of front-running mitigation in decentralized finance, and illustrate remaining attacks and open challenges.

Note: The 2nd Workshop on Decentralized Finance (DeFi'22)

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front-running miner extractable value decentralized finance
Contact author(s)
cbaum @ cs au dk
jchi @ dtu dk
bernardo @ bmdavid com
tore frederiksen @ alexandra dk
lorg @ itu dk
2022-07-19: last of 5 revisions
2021-12-17: received
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      author = {Carsten Baum and James Hsin-yu Chiang and Bernardo David and Tore Kasper Frederiksen and Lorenzo Gentile},
      title = {SoK: Mitigation of Front-running in Decentralized Finance},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/1628},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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