**A Note on P/poly Validity of GVW15 Predicate Encryption Scheme**

*Yupu Hu and Siyue Dong and Baocang Wang and Jun Liu*

**Abstract: **Predicate encryption (PE) is a cutting-edge research topic in cryptography, and an essential component of a research route: identity-based encryption (IBE)→attribute-based encryption (ABE)→predicate encryption (PE)→functional encryption (FE). GVW15 predicate encryption scheme is a major predicate encryption scheme. The bottom structure is BGG+14 attribute-based encryption scheme, which is combined with a fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme. A crucial operation of the scheme is modulus reduction, by which the modulus $Q$ of the fully homomorphic encryption ciphertext (also referred to as the inner modulus) is scaled down to the modulus $q$ of the attribute ciphertext (also referred to as the outer modulus). ‘Therefore’, the noise in the fully homomorphic encryption ciphertext (also referred to as the inner noise) is reduced to polynomial size, allowing for the follow-up exhaustion of noise size and hence correct decryption.

We argue in this paper that there is no evidence to support the $P/poly$ validity of GVW15 predicate encryption scheme, that is, when addressing $P/poly$ functions, there is no evidence to show GVW15 scheme can be implemented. In specific, when addressing $P/poly$ functions, there is no indication that the modulus reduction in GVW15 predicate encryption scheme can scale the noise in the fully homomorphic encryption ciphertext (the inner noise) down to polynomial size. Our argument is separated into two parts.

First, under a compact inner modulus $Q$, an intuition is that modulus reduction should reduce the inner noise to about the same size as the outer noise (i.e. the noise in the attribute ciphertext), which is super-polynomial in size. Breaking this intuition requires a special proof which GVW15 predicate encryption (PE) scheme does not provide.

Second, under an enlarged inner modulus $Q$, the outer modulus is enlarged correspondingly. As a result, the static target of modulus reduction is lost. Even so, the size of inner noise can still be reduced to polynomial size by using proper modulus reduction, as long as it can be proved that the ratio of increments of outer modulus and inner modulus is smaller than the ratio of original outer modulus $q$ and original inner modulus $Q$. However, GVW15 PE scheme failed to provide such proof. Moreover, it appears hopeless to get such proof, based on our observations.

**Category / Keywords: **cryptographic protocols / learning with errors, attribute-based encryption, functional encryption

**Date: **received 8 Dec 2021

**Contact author: **yphu at mail xidian edu cn

**Available format(s): **PDF | BibTeX Citation

**Version: **20211209:031459 (All versions of this report)

**Short URL: **ia.cr/2021/1602

[ Cryptology ePrint archive ]