Paper 2021/1578

On Quantum Query Complexities of Collision-Finding in Non-Uniform Random Functions

Tianci Peng
Shujiao Cao
Rui Xue

Collision resistance and collision finding are now extensively exploited in Cryptography, especially in the case of quantum computing. For any function $f:[M]\to[N]$ with $f(x)$ uniformly distributed over $[N]$, Zhandry has shown that the number $\Theta(N^{1/3})$ of queries is both necessary and sufficient for finding a collision in $f$ with constant probability. However, there is still a gap between the upper and the lower bounds of query complexity in general non-uniform distributions. In this paper, we investigate the quantum query complexity of collision-finding problem with respect to general non-uniform distributions. Inspired by previous work, we pose the concept of collision domain and a new parameter $\gamma$ that heavily depends on the underlying non-uniform distribution. We then present a quantum algorithm that uses $O(\gamma^{1/6})$ quantum queries to find a collision for any non-uniform random function. By making a transformation of a problem in non-uniform setting into a problem in uniform setting, we are also able to show that $\Omega(\gamma^{1/6}\log^{-1/2}\gamma)$ quantum queries are necessary in collision-finding in any non-uniform random function. The upper bound and the lower bound in this work indicates that the proposed algorithm is nearly optimal with query complexity in general non-uniform case.

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QuantumQuery complexityCollision-finding algorithmCompressed oracle techniqueNon-uniform distributionLower bound
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pengtianci @ iie ac cn
2023-02-02: revised
2021-12-03: received
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      author = {Tianci Peng and Shujiao Cao and Rui Xue},
      title = {On Quantum Query Complexities of Collision-Finding in Non-Uniform Random Functions},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/1578},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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