Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2021/1484

On Forging SPHINCS+-Haraka Signatures on a Fault-tolerant Quantum Computer

Robin M. Berger and Marcel Tiepelt

Abstract: SPHINCS+ is a state-of-the-art hash based signature scheme, the security of which is either based on SHA-256, SHAKE-256 or on the Haraka hash function. In this work, we perform an in-depth analysis of how the hash functions are embedded into SPHINCS+ and how the quantum pre-image resistance impacts the security of the signature scheme. Subsequently, we evaluate the cost of implementing Grover’s quantum search algorithm to find a pre-image that admits a universal forgery. In particular, we provide quantum implementations of the Haraka and SHAKE-256 hash functions in Q# and consider the efficiency of attacks in the context of fault-tolerant quantum computers. We restrict our findings to SPHINCS+-128 due to the limited security margin of Haraka. Nevertheless, we present an attack that performs better, to the best of our knowledge, than previously published attacks. We can forge a SPHINCS + -128-Haraka signature in about $1.5 \cdot 2^{90}$ surface code cycles and $2.03 \cdot 10^{6}$ physical qubits, translating to about $1.55 \cdot 2^{101}$ logical-qubit-cycles. For SHAKE-256, the same attack requires $8.65 \cdot 10^{6}$ qubits and $1.6 \cdot 2^{84}$ cycles resulting in about $1.17 \cdot 2^{99}$ logical-qubit-cycles.

Category / Keywords: public-key cryptography / public-key cryptography, post-quantum, cryptanalysis, quantum implementation

Original Publication (with minor differences): Latincrypt 2021

Date: received 8 Nov 2021

Contact author: marcel tiepelt at kit edu

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20211108:135929 (All versions of this report)

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