Paper 2021/1382

ZPiE: Zero-knowledge Proofs in Embedded systems

Xavier Salleras and Vanesa Daza


Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) are cryptographic primitives allowing a party to prove to another party that the former knows some information while keeping it secret. Such a premise can lead to the development of numerous privacy-preserving protocols in different scenarios, like proving knowledge of some credentials to a server without leaking the identity of the user. Even when the applications of ZKPs were endless, they were not exploited in the wild for a couple of decades due to the fact that computing and verifying proofs was too computationally expensive. However, the advent of efficient schemes (in particular, zk-SNARKs) made this primitive to break into the scene in fields like cryptocurrencies, smart-contracts, and more recently, self-sovereign scenarios: private-by-design identity management and authentication. Nevertheless, its adoption in environments like the Internet of Things (IoT) remains unexplored due to the computational limitations of embedded systems. In this paper, we introduce ZPiE, a C library intended to create ZKP applications to be executed in embedded systems. Its main feature is portability: it can be compiled, executed, and used out-of-the-box in a wide variety of devices. Moreover, our proof-of-concept has been proved to work smoothly in different devices with limited resources, which can execute state-of-the-art ZKP authentication protocols.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Mathematics
Zero-Knowledge ProofsSNARKsEmbedded SystemsApplied Cryptography.
Contact author(s)
xavier salleras @ upf edu
vanesa daza @ upf edu
2021-10-15: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Xavier Salleras and Vanesa Daza},
      title = {ZPiE: Zero-knowledge Proofs in Embedded systems},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/1382},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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