Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2021/1360

Updatable Trapdoor SPHFs: Modular Construction of Updatable Zero-Knowledge Arguments and More

Behzad Abdolmaleki and Daniel Slamanig

Abstract: Recently, motivated by its increased use in real-world applications, there has been a growing interest on the reduction of trust in the generation of the common reference string (CRS) for zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs. This line of research was initiated by the introduction of subversion non-interactive ZK (NIZK) proofs by Bellare et al. (ASIACRYPT'16). Here, the zero-knowledge property needs to hold even in case of a malicious generation of the CRS. Groth et al. (CRYPTO'18) then introduced the notion of updatable zk-SNARKS, later adopted by Lipmaa (SCN'20) to updatable quasi-adaptive NIZK (QA-NIZK) proofs. In contrast to the subversion setting, in the updatable setting one can achieve stronger soundness guarantees at the cost of reintroducing some trust, resulting in a model in between the fully trusted CRS generation and the subversion setting. It is a promising concept, but all previous updatable constructions are ad-hoc and tailored to particular instances of proof systems. Consequently, it is an interesting question whether it is possible to construct updatable ZK primitives in a more modular way from simpler building blocks.

In this work we revisit the notion of trapdoor smooth projective hash functions (TSPHFs) in the light of an updatable CRS. TSPHFs have been introduced by Benhamouda et al. (CRYPTO'13) and can be seen as a special type of a 2-round ZK proof system. In doing so, we first present a framework called lighter TSPHFs (L-TSPHFs). Building upon it, we introduce updatable L-TSPHFs as well as instantiations in bilinear groups. We then show how one can generically construct updatable quasi-adaptive zero-knowledge arguments from updatable L-TSPHFs. Our instantiations are generic and more efficient than existing ones. Finally, we discuss applications of (updatable) L-TSPHFs to efficient (updatable) 2-round ZK arguments as well as updatable password-authenticated key-exchange (uPAKE).

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Quasi-adaptive zero-knowledge, updatable zero-knowledge, smooth projective hash function (SPHF), trapdoor SPHF, updatable password-authenticated key-exchange (uPAKE)

Original Publication (with minor differences): ACISP 2021

Date: received 8 Oct 2021

Contact author: behzad abdolmaleki at csp mpg de, daniel slamanig at ait ac at

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20211012:061442 (All versions of this report)

Short URL: ia.cr/2021/1360


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