Paper 2021/1355

Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4

Hwajeong Seo and Reza Azarderakhsh


Public key cryptography is widely used in key exchange and digital signature protocols. Public key cryptography requires expensive primitive operations, such as finite-field and group operations. These finite-field and group operations require a number of clock cycles to exe- cute. By carefully optimizing these primitive operations, public key cryp- tography can be performed with reasonably fast execution timing. In this paper, we present the new implementation result of Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 microcontrollers. We adopted state-of-art implementa- tion methods, and some previous methods were re-designed to fully uti- lize the features of the target microcontrollers. The implementation was also performed with constant timing by utilizing the features of micro- controllers and algorithms. Finally, the scalar multiplication of Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4@168MHz microcontrollers requires 6,285,904 clock cycles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first optimized im- plementation of Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 microcontrollers. The result is also compared with other ECC and post-quantum cryptog- raphy (PQC) implementations. The proposed ECC and the-state-of-art PQC results show the practical usage of hybrid post-quantum TLS on the target processor.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Published elsewhere. ICISC'2020
ARM Cortex-M4Curve448Public Key CryptographyHybrid Post-Quantum TLS
Contact author(s)
hwajeong84 @ gmail com
2021-10-12: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Hwajeong Seo and Reza Azarderakhsh},
      title = {Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/1355},
      year = {2021},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-68890-5_7},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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