Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2021/1355

Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4

Hwajeong Seo and Reza Azarderakhsh

Abstract: Public key cryptography is widely used in key exchange and digital signature protocols. Public key cryptography requires expensive primitive operations, such as finite-field and group operations. These finite-field and group operations require a number of clock cycles to exe- cute. By carefully optimizing these primitive operations, public key cryp- tography can be performed with reasonably fast execution timing. In this paper, we present the new implementation result of Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 microcontrollers. We adopted state-of-art implementa- tion methods, and some previous methods were re-designed to fully uti- lize the features of the target microcontrollers. The implementation was also performed with constant timing by utilizing the features of micro- controllers and algorithms. Finally, the scalar multiplication of Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4@168MHz microcontrollers requires 6,285,904 clock cycles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first optimized im- plementation of Curve448 on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 microcontrollers. The result is also compared with other ECC and post-quantum cryptog- raphy (PQC) implementations. The proposed ECC and the-state-of-art PQC results show the practical usage of hybrid post-quantum TLS on the target processor.

Category / Keywords: implementation / ARM Cortex-M4, Curve448, Public Key Cryptography, Hybrid Post-Quantum TLS

Original Publication (in the same form): ICISC'2020

Date: received 8 Oct 2021

Contact author: hwajeong84 at gmail com

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20211012:061058 (All versions of this report)

Short URL:

[ Cryptology ePrint archive ]