Paper 2021/1350

Generalized Proof of Liabilities

Yan Ji and Konstantinos Chalkias


Proof of liabilities (PoL) allows a prover to prove his/her liabilities to a group of verifiers. This is a cryptographic primitive once used only for proving financial solvency but is also applicable to domains outside finance, including transparent and private donations, new algorithms for disapproval voting and publicly verifiable official reports such as COVID-19 daily cases. These applications share a common nature in incentives: it's not in the prover's interest to increase his/her total liabilities. We generalize PoL for these applications by attempting for the first time to standardize the goals it should achieve from security, privacy and efficiency perspectives. We also propose DAPOL+, a concrete PoL scheme extending the state-of-the-art DAPOL protocol but providing provable security and privacy, with benchmark results demonstrating its practicality. In addition, we explore techniques to provide additional features that might be desired in different applications of PoL and measure the asymptotic probability of failure.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Minor revision. ACM CCS 2021
distributed auditblockchainsrange proofssparse Merkle treessolvencytax reportingdisapproval votingfundraisingCOVID-19 reportingcredit score
Contact author(s)
chalkiaskostas @ gmail com
kostascrypto @ fb com
yj348 @ cornell edu
2021-10-07: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Yan Ji and Konstantinos Chalkias},
      title = {Generalized Proof of Liabilities},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/1350},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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