Paper 2021/1264

Verifiably-Extractable OWFs and Their Applications to Subversion Zero-Knowledge

Prastudy Fauzi, Helger Lipmaa, Janno Siim, Michal Zajac, and Arne Tobias Ødegaard


An extractable one-way function (EOWF), introduced by Canetti and Dakdouk (ICALP 2008) and generalized by Bitansky et al. (SIAM Journal on Computing vol. 45), is an OWF that allows for efficient extraction of a preimage for the function. We study (generalized) EOWFs that have a public image verification algorithm. We call such OWFs verifiably-extractable and show that several previously known constructions satisfy this notion. We study how such OWFs relate to subversion zero-knowledge (Sub-ZK) NIZKs by using them to generically construct a Sub-ZK NIZK from a NIZK satisfying certain additional properties, and conversely show how to obtain them from any Sub-ZK NIZK. Prior to our work, the Sub-ZK property of NIZKs was achieved using concrete knowledge assumptions.

Note: This is a full version of our Asiacrypt 2021 paper.

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Publication info
A minor revision of an IACR publication in ASIACRYPT 2021
zkSNARKsubversion zero-knowledgeNIZKEOWFGeneralized EOWF
Contact author(s)
m p zajac @ gmail com
arne tobias @ gmail com
helger lipmaa @ gmail com
prastudy fauzi @ gmail com
jannosiim @ gmail com
2021-09-22: last of 2 revisions
2021-09-22: received
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      author = {Prastudy Fauzi and Helger Lipmaa and Janno Siim and Michal Zajac and Arne Tobias Ødegaard},
      title = {Verifiably-Extractable {OWFs} and Their Applications to Subversion Zero-Knowledge},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/1264},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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