Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2021/124

Efficient Number Theoretic Transform Implementation on GPU for Homomorphic Encryption

Ozgun Ozerk and Can Elgezen and Ahmet Can Mert and Erdinc Ozturk and Erkay Savas

Abstract: Lattice-based cryptography forms the mathematical basis for homomorphic encryption, which allows computation directly on encrypted data. Homomorphic encryption enables privacy-preserving applications such as secure cloud computing; yet, its practical applications suffer from the high computational complexity of homomorphic operations. Fast implementations of the homomorphic encryption schemes heavily depend on efficient polynomial arithmetic; multiplication of very large degree polynomials over polynomial rings, in particular. Number theoretic transform (NTT) accelerates polynomial multiplication significantly and therefore, it is the core arithmetic operation in the majority of homomorphic encryption scheme implementations. Therefore, practical homomorphic applications require efficient and fast implementations of NTT in different computing platforms. In this work, we present an efficient and fast implementation of NTT, inverse NTT (INTT) and NTT-based polynomial multiplication operations for GPU platforms. To demonstrate that our GPU implementation can be utilized as an actual accelerator, we experimented with the key generation, the encryption and the decryption operations of the Brakerski/Fan-Vercauteren (BFV) homomorphic encryption scheme implemented in Microsoft's SEAL homomorphic encryption library on GPU, all of which heavily depend on the NTT-based polynomial multiplication. Our GPU implementations improve the performance of these three BFV operations by up to 141.95x, 105.17x and 90.13x, respectively, on Tesla V100 GPU compared to the highly-optimized SEAL library running on an Intel i9-7900X CPU.

Category / Keywords: implementation / Lattice-based Cryptography, Homomorphic Encryption, SEAL, Number Theoretic Transform, Polynomial Multiplication, GPU, CUDA

Date: received 3 Feb 2021

Contact author: ozgunozerk at sabanciuniv edu,celgezen@sabanciuniv edu,ahmetcanmert@sabanciuniv edu,erdinco@sabanciuniv edu,erkays@sabanciuniv edu

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Version: 20210205:123631 (All versions of this report)

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