**Hardness of KT Characterizes Parallel Cryptography**

*Hanlin Ren and Rahul Santhanam*

**Abstract: **A recent breakthrough of Liu and Pass (FOCS'20) shows that one-way functions exist if and only if the (polynomial-)time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, ${\rm K}^t$, is bounded-error hard on average to compute. In this paper, we strengthen this result and extend it to other complexity measures:

* We show, perhaps surprisingly, that the $\rm KT$ complexity is bounded-error average-case hard if and only if there exist one-way functions in *constant parallel time* (i.e., ${\sf NC}^0$). This result crucially relies on the idea of *randomized encodings*. Previously, a seminal work of Applebaum, Ishai, and Kushilevitz (FOCS'04; SICOMP'06) used the same idea to show that ${\sf NC}^0$-computable one-way functions exist if and only if logspace-computable one-way functions exist.

* Inspired by the above result, we present randomized average-case reductions among the ${\sf NC}^1$-versions and logspace-versions of ${\rm K}^t$ complexity, and the $\rm KT$ complexity. Our reductions preserve both bounded-error average-case hardness and zero-error average-case hardness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reduction between the $\rm KT$ complexity and a variant of ${\rm K}^t$ complexity.

* We prove tight connections between the hardness of ${\rm K}^t$ complexity and the hardness of (the hardest) one-way functions. In analogy with the Exponential-Time Hypothesis and its variants, we define and motivate the *Perebor Hypotheses* for complexity measures such as ${\rm K}^t$ and $\rm KT$. We show that a Strong Perebor Hypothesis for ${\rm K}^t$ implies the existence of (weak) one-way functions of near-optimal hardness $2^{n-o(n)}$. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction of one-way functions of near-optimal hardness based on a natural complexity assumption about a search problem.

* We show that a Weak Perebor Hypothesis for ${\rm MCSP}$ implies the existence of one-way functions, and establish a partial converse. This is the first unconditional construction of one-way functions from the hardness of ${\rm MCSP}$ over a natural distribution.

* Finally, we study the average-case hardness of ${\rm MKtP}$. We show that it characterizes cryptographic pseudorandomness in one natural regime of parameters, and complexity-theoretic pseudorandomness in another natural regime.

**Category / Keywords: **foundations / one-way functions, complexity theory

**Original Publication**** (with minor differences): **CCC 2021
**DOI: **10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.35

**Date: **received 21 Aug 2021, last revised 24 Aug 2021

**Contact author: **h4n1in r3n at gmail com

**Available format(s): **PDF | BibTeX Citation

**Version: **20210824:155838 (All versions of this report)

**Short URL: **ia.cr/2021/1076

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