Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2021/1013

Iterative Oblivious Pseudo-Random Functions and Applications

Erik-Oliver Blass and Florian Kerschbaum and Travis Mayberry

Abstract: We consider the problem of a client querying an encrypted binary tree structure, outsourced to an untrusted server. While the server must not learn the contents of the binary tree, we also want to prevent the client from maliciously crafting a query that traverses the tree out-of-order. That is, the client should not be able to retrieve nodes outside one contiguous path from the root to a leaf. Finally, the server should not learn which path the client accesses, but is guaranteed that the access corresponds to one valid path in the tree. This is an extension of protocols such as structured encryption, where it is only guaranteed that the tree's encrypted data remains hidden from the server.

To this end, we initiate the study of Iterative Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions (iOPRFs), new primitives providing two-sided, fully malicious security for these types of applications. We present a first, efficient iOPRF construction secure against both malicious clients and servers in the standard model, based on the DDH assumption. We demonstrate that iOPRFs are useful to implement different interesting applications, including an RFID authentication protocol and a protocol for private evaluation of outsourced decision trees. Finally, we implement and evaluate our full iOPRF construction and show that it is efficient in practice.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / one-way functions, zero knowledge, oblivious transfer, malicious security

Date: received 30 Jul 2021

Contact author: mayberry at usna edu

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20210806:072237 (All versions of this report)

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