Paper 2020/629

Dual-Mode NIZKs: Possibility and Impossibility Results for Property Transfer

Vivek Arte and Mihir Bellare


This paper formulates, and studies, the problem of property transference in dual-mode NIZKs. We say that a property P (such as soundness, ZK or WI) transfers, if, one of the modes having P allows us to prove that the other mode has the computational analogue of P, as a consequence of nothing but the indistinguishability of the CRSs in the two modes. Our most interesting finding is negative; we show by counter-example that the form of soundness that seems most important for applications fails to transfer. On the positive side, we develop a general framework that allows us to show that zero knowledge, witness indistinguishability, extractability and weaker forms of soundness do transfer. Our treatment covers conventional, designated-verifier and designated-prover NIZKs in a unified way.

Note: Fixes a bug in the preliminary version of this paper.

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Publication info
Published elsewhere. MAJOR revision.Indocrypt 2020
non-interactive zero knowledgedual-mode proof systems
Contact author(s)
varte @ ucsd edu
mihir @ eng ucsd edu
2021-02-26: last of 2 revisions
2020-06-03: received
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      author = {Vivek Arte and Mihir Bellare},
      title = {Dual-Mode NIZKs: Possibility and Impossibility Results for Property Transfer},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2020/629},
      year = {2020},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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