Paper 2020/621

How to Base Security on the Perfect/Statistical Binding Property of Quantum Bit Commitment?

Junbin Fang
Dominique Unruh
Jun Yan
Dehua Zhou

The concept of quantum bit commitment was introduced in the early 1980s for the purpose of basing bit commitments solely on principles of quantum theory. Unfortunately, such unconditional quantum bit commitments still turn out to be impossible. As a compromise like in classical cryptography, Dumais et al. [DMS00] introduce the conditional quantum bit commitments that additionally rely on complexity assumptions. However, in contrast to classical bit commitments which are widely used in classical cryptography, up until now there is relatively little work towards studying the application of quantum bit commitments in quantum cryptography. This may be partly due to the well-known weakness of the general quantum binding that comes from the possible superposition attack of the sender of quantum commitments, making it unclear whether quantum commitments could be useful in quantum cryptography. In this work, following Yan et al. [YWLQ15] we continue studying using (canonical non-interactive) perfectly/statistically-binding quantum bit commitments as the drop-in replacement of classical bit commitments in some well-known constructions. Specifically, we show that the (quantum) security can still be established for zero-knowledge proof, oblivious transfer, and proof-of-knowledge. In spite of this, we stress that the corresponding security analyses are by no means trivial extensions of their classical analyses; new techniques are needed to handle possible superposition attacks by the cheating sender of quantum bit commitments. Since (canonical non-interactive) statistically-binding quantum bit commitments can be constructed from quantum-secure one-way functions, we hope using them (as opposed to classical commitments) in cryptographic constructions can reduce the round complexity and weaken the complexity assumption simultaneously.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
quantum cryptography bit commitment zero knowledge oblivious transfer proof-of-knowledge quantum rewinding
Contact author(s)
tjunyan @ jnu edu cn
2022-06-26: last of 2 revisions
2020-05-26: received
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      author = {Junbin Fang and Dominique Unruh and Jun Yan and Dehua Zhou},
      title = {How to Base Security on the Perfect/Statistical Binding Property of Quantum Bit Commitment?},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2020/621},
      year = {2020},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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