Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2020/552

High-Precision Bootstrapping of RNS-CKKS Homomorphic Encryption Using Optimal Minimax Polynomial Approximation and Inverse Sine Function

Joon-Woo Lee and Eunsang Lee and Yongwoo Lee and Young-Sik Kim and Jong-Seon No

Abstract: Approximate homomorphic encryption with the residue number system (RNS), called RNS-variant Cheon-Kim-Kim-Song (RNS-CKKS) scheme, is a practical fully homomorphic encryption scheme that supports arithmetic operations for real or complex number data encrypted. Although the RNS-CKKS scheme is a fully homomorphic encryption scheme, most of the applications with RNS-CKKS scheme use it as only leveled homomorphic encryption scheme because of the lack of the practicality of the bootstrapping operation of the RNS-CKKS scheme. One of the crucial problems of the bootstrapping operation is its poor precision. While other basic homomorphic operations ensure sufficiently high precision for practical use, the bootstrapping operation only supports about 20-bit fixed-point precision at best, which is lower than the standard single-precision of the floating-point number system. Due to this limitation of the current bootstrapping technology, the RNS-CKKS scheme is difficult to be used for the reliable deep-depth homomorphic computations until now. In this paper, we improve the message precision in the bootstrapping operation of the RNS-CKKS scheme. Since the homomorphic modular reduction process is one of the most important steps in determining the precision of the bootstrapping, we focus on the homomorphic modular reduction process. Firstly, we propose a fast algorithm of obtaining the optimal minimax approximate polynomial of modular reduction function and the scaled sine/cosine function over the union of the approximation regions, called the modified Remez algorithm. In fact, this algorithm derives the optimal minimax approximate polynomial of any continuous functions over any union of the finite number of intervals. Next, we propose the composite function method using inverse sine function to reduce the difference between the scaling factor used in the bootstrapping and the default scaling factor. With these methods, we reduce the approximation error in the bootstrapping of the RNS-CKKS scheme by 1/200~1/53 (5.8~7.6-bit precision improvement) for each parameter setting. While the bootstrapping without the composite function method has 16.5~20.1-bit precision at maximum, the bootstrapping with the composite function method has 22.4~27.8-bit precision, most of which are better precision than that of the single-precision number system.

Category / Keywords: public-key cryptography / Approximate homomorphic encryption, Bootstrapping, Composite function approximation, Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE), Inverse sine function, Minimax approximate polynomial, Modified Remez algorithm, RNS-variant Cheon-Kim-Kim-Song (RNS-CKKS) scheme

Date: received 11 May 2020, last revised 8 Oct 2020

Contact author: joonwoo3511 at ccl snu ac kr,eslee3209@ccl snu ac kr,yongwool@ccl snu ac kr,iamyskim@Chosun ac kr,jsno@snu ac kr

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Note: We focus on the improvement of the message precision of the RNS-CKKS scheme using our techniques in previous versions of this paper. Simulation results for the message precision of the RNS-CKKS scheme are added in this version.

Version: 20201008:235404 (All versions of this report)

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