Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2020/549

Drop by Drop you break the rock - Exploiting generic vulnerabilities in Lattice-based PKE/KEMs using EM-based Physical Attacks

Prasanna Ravi and Shivam Bhasin and Sujoy Sinha Roy and Anupam Chattopadhyay

Abstract: We report an important implementation vulnerability exploitable through physical attacks for message recovery in five lattice-based public-key encryption schemes (PKE) and Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (KEM) - NewHope, Kyber, Saber, Round5 and LAC that are currently competing in the second round of NIST's standardization process for post-quantum cryptography. The reported vulnerability exists in the message decoding function which is a fundamental kernel present in lattice-based PKE/KEMs and further analysis of the implementations in the public pqm4 library revealed that the message decoding function is implemented in a similar manner in all the identified schemes and thus they all share the common side-channel vulnerability that leaks individual bits of the secret message. We demonstrate that the identified vulnerability can be exploited through a number of practical electromagnetic side-channel attacks, fault attacks and combined attacks on implementations from the pqm4 library running on the ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller. As a key contribution, we also demonstrate the first practical EM-based combined side-channel and fault attack on lattice-based PKE/KEMs.

Category / Keywords: public-key cryptography / post-quantum cryptography; lattice-based cryptography; EM- based side-channel attacks; EM-based fault injection attacks

Date: received 11 May 2020, last revised 11 May 2020

Contact author: PRASANNA RAVI at ntu edu sg

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Version: 20200515:095045 (All versions of this report)

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