**Lightweight Authenticated Encryption Mode Suitable for Threshold Implementation**

*Yusuke Naito and Yu Sasaki and Takeshi Sugawara*

**Abstract: **This paper proposes tweakable block cipher (TBC) based modes $\mathsf{PFB\_Plus}$ and $\mathsf{PFB}\omega$ that are efficient in threshold implementations (TI). Let $t$ be an algebraic degree of a target function, e.g.~$t=1$ (resp.~$t>1$) for linear (resp.~non-linear) function. The $d$-th order TI encodes the internal state into $d t + 1$ shares. Hence, the area size increases proportionally to the number of shares. This implies that TBC based modes can be smaller than block cipher (BC) based modes in TI because TBC requires $s$-bit block to ensure $s$-bit security, e.g. \textsf{PFB} and \textsf{Romulus}, while BC requires $2s$-bit block. However, even with those TBC based modes, the minimum we can reach is 3 shares of $s$-bit state with $t=2$ and the first-order TI ($d=1$).

Our first design $\mathsf{PFB\_Plus}$ aims to break the barrier of the $3s$-bit state in TI. The block size of an underlying TBC is $s/2$ bits and the output of TBC is linearly expanded to $s$ bits. This expanded state requires only 2 shares in the first-order TI, which makes the total state size $2.5s$ bits. We also provide rigorous security proof of $\mathsf{PFB\_Plus}$. Our second design $\mathsf{PFB}\omega$ further increases a parameter $\omega$: a ratio of the security level $s$ to the block size of an underlying TBC. We prove security of $\mathsf{PFB}\omega$ for any $\omega$ under some assumptions for an underlying TBC and for parameters used to update a state. Next, we show a concrete instantiation of $\mathsf{PFB\_Plus}$ for 128-bit security. It requires a TBC with 64-bit block, 128-bit key and 128-bit tweak, while no existing TBC can support it. We design a new TBC by extending \textsf{SKINNY} and provide basic security evaluation. Finally, we give hardware benchmarks of $\mathsf{PFB\_Plus}$ in the first-order TI to show that TI of $\mathsf{PFB\_Plus}$ is smaller than that of \textsf{PFB} by more than one thousand gates and is the smallest within the schemes having 128-bit security.

**Category / Keywords: **secret-key cryptography / Authenticated encryption, threshold implementation, beyond- birthday-bound security, tweakable block cipher, lightweight

**Original Publication**** (with minor differences): **IACR-EUROCRYPT-2020

**Date: **received 9 May 2020

**Contact author: **Naito Yusuke at ce MitsubishiElectric co jp

**Available format(s): **PDF | BibTeX Citation

**Version: **20200515:094141 (All versions of this report)

**Short URL: **ia.cr/2020/542

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