Paper 2020/534

Post-quantum TLS without handshake signatures

Peter Schwabe, Douglas Stebila, and Thom Wiggers


We present KEMTLS, an alternative to the TLS 1.3 handshake that uses key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) instead of signatures for server authentication. Among existing post-quantum candidates, signature schemes generally have larger public key/signature sizes compared to the public key/ciphertext sizes of KEMs: by using an IND-CCA-secure KEM for server authentication in post-quantum TLS, we obtain multiple benefits. A size-optimized post-quantum instantiation of KEMTLS requires less than half the bandwidth of a size-optimized post-quantum instantiation of TLS 1.3. In a speed-optimized instantiation, KEMTLS reduces the amount of server CPU cycles by almost 90% compared to TLS 1.3, while at the same time reducing communication size, reducing the time until the client can start sending encrypted application data, and eliminating code for signatures from the server's trusted code base.

Note: Updated measurements with NIST Round-3 schemes as well as small fixes to the security sketch for mutual auth. Corrected version with correct ephemeral key exchange metrics.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Major revision. ACM CCS 2020
TLSTransport Layer Securityauthentication protocolspublic-key cryptographykey-encapsulation mechanismspost-quantumNIST PQC
Contact author(s)
peter @ cryptojedi org
dstebila @ uwaterloo ca
thom @ thomwiggers nl
2022-03-15: last of 7 revisions
2020-05-07: received
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      author = {Peter Schwabe and Douglas Stebila and Thom Wiggers},
      title = {Post-quantum TLS without handshake signatures},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2020/534},
      year = {2020},
      doi = {10.1145/3372297.3423350},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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