Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2020/443

A White-Box Masking Scheme Resisting Computational and Algebraic Attacks

Okan Seker and Thomas Eisenbarth and Maciej Liskiewicz

Abstract: White-box cryptography attempts to protect cryptographic secrets in pure software implementations. Due to its high utility, white-box cryptosystems (WBC) are deployed even though their secure construction is not well understood. A major breakthrough in generic cryptanalysis of WBC was Differential Computation Analysis (DCA), which requires minimal knowledge of the underlying white-box protection and also thwarts many obfuscation methods. To avert DCA, classic masking countermeasures originally intended to protect against highly related side channel attacks have been proposed for use in WBC. However, due to the controlled environment of WBCs, new algebraic attacks able to break all classic masking schemes have quickly been found. These algebraic DCA attacks break classic masking countermeasures efficiently, as they are independent of the masking order.

In this work, we propose a novel generic masking scheme that can resist both DCA and algebraic attacks. The proposed scheme extends the seminal work by Ishai et al. which is probing secure and thus resists DCA, to also resist algebraic attacks. To prove the security of our scheme, we demonstrate the connection between two main security notions in white-box cryptography: Side Channel Analysis (SCA) security and prediction security. Resistance of our masking scheme to DCA is proven for an arbitrary order of protection. Our masking scheme also resists algebraic attacks, which we show concretely for first and second order algebraic protection, and show how it can be generalized to any order. Moreover, we present an extensive performance analysis and quantify the overhead of our scheme, for a proof-of-concept protection of an AES implementation.

Category / Keywords: secret-key cryptography / White-box Cryptography, Boolean Masking, Non-linear Masking, Probing Security, Prediction Security, Differential Computation Analysis, Algebraic Attacks

Date: received 16 Apr 2020

Contact author: okan seker at uni-luebeck de, thomas eisenbarth@uni-luebeck de, liskiewi@tcs uni-luebeck de

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Version: 20200419:155210 (All versions of this report)

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