Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2020/421

Multichain-MWPoW: A $p/2$ Adversary Power Resistant Blockchain Sharding Approach to a Decentralised Autonomous Organisation Architecture

Yibin Xu and Yangyu Huang and Jianhua Shao and George Theodorakopoulos

Abstract: Blockchain Sharding is a blockchain performance enhancement approach. By splitting a blockchain into several parallel-run committees (shards), it helps increase transaction throughput, reduce resources required, and increase reward expectation for participants. Recently, several flexible sharding methods that can tolerate up to $n/2$ Byzantine nodes ($n/2$ security level) have been proposed. However, these methods suffer from two main drawbacks. First, in a non-sharding blockchain, nodes can have different weight (power or stake) to create a consensus. So an adversary needs to control half of the overall weight of the system in order for a piece of faulty information to be accepted into the blockchain ($p/2$ security level). In blockchain sharding, all nodes carry the same weight. Thus, it is only under the assumption that the honest participants are creating as many nodes as they can that a $n/2$ security level blockchain sharding reaches the $p/2$ security level. Secondly, when some nodes leave the system, other nodes need to be reassigned, frequently, from shard to shard in order to maintain the security level of the system. In this paper, we present Multichain MWPoW, a $p/2$ security level blockchain sharding architecture that does not require honest participants to create multiple nodes and requires less node reassignment when some nodes leave the system. It combines the Multiple Winners Proof of Work consensus protocol (MWPoW) with the flexibility of $n/2$ blockchain sharding. Our experiments show that Multichain MWPoW outperforms existing blockchain sharding approaches in terms of security, transaction throughput and flexibility.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Blockchain; Distributed ledger; Blockchain Security; Blockchain sharding; Blockchain Performance

Date: received 14 Apr 2020, last revised 9 Aug 2020

Contact author: work at xuyibin top

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Note: Correct some typos

Version: 20200809:130555 (All versions of this report)

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