Paper 2020/413

Defeating State-of-the-Art White-Box Countermeasures with Advanced Gray-Box Attacks

Louis Goubin, Matthieu Rivain, and Junwei Wang


The goal of white-box cryptography is to protect secret keys embedded in a cryptographic software deployed in an untrusted environment. In this article, we revisit state-of-the-art countermeasures employed in white-box cryptography, and we discuss possible ways to combine them. Then we analyze the different gray-box attack paths and study their performances in terms of required traces and computation time. Afterward, we propose a new paradigm for the gray-box attack against white-box cryptography, which exploits the data-dependency of the target implementation. We demonstrate that our approach provides substantial complexity improvements over the existing attacks. Finally, we showcase this new technique by breaking the three winning AES-128 white-box implementations from WhibOx 2019 white-box cryptography competition.

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Published by the IACR in TCHES 2020
white-box cryptographylinear maskingnon-linear maskingshufflingdata-dependency
Contact author(s)
matthieu rivain @ cryptoexperts com
junwei wang @ cryptoexperts com
2020-04-15: last of 2 revisions
2020-04-13: received
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      author = {Louis Goubin and Matthieu Rivain and Junwei Wang},
      title = {Defeating State-of-the-Art White-Box Countermeasures with Advanced Gray-Box Attacks},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2020/413},
      year = {2020},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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