Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2020/323

A Flexible n/2 Adversary Node Resistant and Halting Recoverable Blockchain Sharding Protocol

Yibin Xu and Yangyu Huang and Jianhua Shao and George Theodorakopoulos

Abstract: Blockchain sharding is a promising approach to solving the dilemma between decentralisation and high performance (transaction throughput) for blockchain. The main challenge of Blockchain sharding systems is how to reach a decision on a statement among a sub-group (shard) of people while ensuring the whole population recognises this statement. Namely, the challenge is to prevent an adversary who does not have the majority of nodes globally but have the majority of nodes inside a shard. Most Blockchain sharding approaches can only reach a correct consensus inside a shard with at most $n/3$ evil nodes in a $n$ node system. There is a blockchain sharding approach which can prevent an incorrect decision to be reached when the adversary does not have $n/2$ nodes globally. However, the system can be stopped from reaching consensus (become deadlocked) if the adversary controls a smaller number of nodes.

In this paper, we present an improved Blockchain sharding approach that can withstand $n/2$ adversarial nodes and recover from deadlocks. The recovery is made by dynamically adjusting the number of shards and the shard size. A performance analysis suggests our approach has a high performance (transaction throughput) while requiring little bandwidth for synchronisation.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / blockchain sharding

Original Publication (with minor differences): Concurrency and Computation Practice and Experience

Date: received 15 Mar 2020, last revised 23 Mar 2020

Contact author: work at xuyibin top

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20200323:131216 (All versions of this report)

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