Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2020/1576

How to Make Private Distributed Cardinality Estimation Practical, and Get Differential Privacy for Free

Changhui Hu and Jin Li and Zheli Liu and Xiaojie Guo and Yu Wei and Xuan Guang and Grigorios Loukides and Changyu Dong

Abstract: Secure computation is a promising privacy enhancing technology, but it is often not scalable enough for data intensive applications. On the other hand, the use of sketches has gained popularity in data mining, because sketches often give rise to highly efficient and scalable sub-linear algorithms. It is natural to ask: what if we put secure computation and sketches together? We investigated the question and the findings are interesting: we can get security, we can get scalability, and somewhat unexpectedly, we can also get differential privacy -- for free. Our study started from building a secure computation protocol based on the Flajolet-Martin (FM) sketches, for solving the Private Distributed Cardinality Estimation (PDCE) problem, which is a fundamental problem with applications ranging from crowd tracking to network monitoring. The state of art protocol for PDCE (Fenske et al. CCS'17) is computationally expensive and not scalable enough to cope with big data applications, which prompted us to design a better protocol. Our further analysis revealed that if the cardinality to be estimated is large enough, our protocol can achieve $(\epsilon,\delta)$-differential privacy automatically, without requiring any additional manipulation of the output. The result signifies a new approach for achieving differential privacy that departs from the mainstream approach (i.e. adding noise to the result). Free differential privacy can be achieved because of two reasons: secure computation minimizes information leakage, and the intrinsic estimation variance of the FM sketch makes the output of our protocol uncertain. We further show that the result is not just theoretical: the minimal cardinality for differential privacy to hold is only $10^2-10^4$ for typical parameters.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / multiparty computation, differential privacy, Private Distributed Cardinality Estimation, Private Set Union Cardinality, Flajolet-Martin sketch

Original Publication (with major differences): to appear in USENIX Security '21

Date: received 17 Dec 2020, last revised 31 Dec 2020

Contact author: changyu dong at newcastle ac uk

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20201231:142133 (All versions of this report)

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