Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2020/1110

Two-round $n$-out-of-$n$ and Multi-Signatures and Trapdoor Commitment from Lattices

Ivan Damgård and Claudio Orlandi and Akira Takahashi and Mehdi Tibouchi

Abstract: Although they have been studied for a long time, distributed signature protocols have garnered renewed interest in recent years in view of novel applications to topics like blockchains. Most recent works have focused on distributed versions of ECDSA and over variants of Schnorr signatures, however, and in particular, little attention has been given to constructions based on post-quantum secure assumptions like the hardness of lattice problems. A few lattice-based threshold signature and multi-signature schemes have been proposed in the literature, but they either rely on hash-and-sign lattice signatures (which tend to be comparatively inefficient), use expensive generic transformations, or only come with incomplete security proofs.

In this paper, we construct several lattice-based distributed signing protocols with low round complexity following the Fiat--Shamir with Aborts paradigm of Lyubashevsky (Asiacrypt 2009). Our protocols can be seen as distributed variants of the fast Dilithium-G signature scheme. A key step to achieve security (unexplained in some earlier papers) is to prevent the leakage that can occur when parties abort after their first message---which can inevitably happen in the Fiat--Shamir with Aborts setting. We manage to do so using lattice-based homomorphic commitments as constructed by Baum et al. (SCN 2018).

We first propose a three-round $n$-out-of-$n$ signature from Module-LWE with full security proof using ideas from lossy identification schemes. Then, we further reduce the complexity to two rounds, at the cost of relying on Module-SIS as an additional assumption, with a larger security loss due to the forking lemma, and requiring somewhat more expensive trapdoor commitments. The construction of suitable trapdoor commitments from lattices is a side contribution of this paper. Finally, we also obtain a two-round multi-signature scheme as a variant of our two-round $n$-out-of-$n$ protocol.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / $n$-out-of-$n$ distributed signatures, multi-signatures, lattice-based cryptography, Fiat--Shamir with aborts, trapdoor commitments

Date: received 14 Sep 2020, last revised 18 Sep 2020

Contact author: takahashi at cs au dk, ivan@cs au dk, orlandi@cs au dk, mehdi tibouchi br@hco ntt co jp

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Version: 20200918:140729 (All versions of this report)

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