Paper 2019/919

Detecting Faults in Inner Product Masking Scheme - IPM-FD: IPM with Fault Detection (extended version∗)

Wei Cheng, Claude Carlet, Kouassi Goli, Sylvain Guilley, and Jean-Luc Danger


Side-channel analysis and fault injection attacks are two typical threats to cryptographic implementations, especially in modern embedded devices. Thus there is an insistent demand for dual side-channel and fault injection protections. As it is known, masking is a kind of provable countermeasure against side-channel attacks. Recently, inner product masking (IPM) was proposed as a promising higher-order masking scheme against side-channel analysis, but not for fault injection attacks. In this paper, we devise a new masking scheme named IPM-FD. It is built on IPM, which enables fault detection. This novel masking scheme has three properties: the security orders in the word-level probing model, bit-level probing model, and the number of detected faults. IPM-FD is proven secure both in the word-level and in the bit-level probing models, and allows for end-to-end fault detection against fault injection attacks. Furthermore, we illustrate its security order by interpreting IPM-FD as a coding problem then linking it to one defining parameters of linear code, and show its implementation cost by applying IPM-FD to AES-128.

Note: This is the extended version of the paper accepted by PROOFS 2019, which is accepted by *Journal of Cryptographic Engineering* (JCEN). We notice that there is a bug in the published version of JCEN. Specifically, in Lemma 1, two matrices G and H should be one on top of each other. Hence, we put the corrected version here to be freely available to all researchers.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Minor revision. Journal of Cryptographic Engineering
Side-channel AnalysisInner Product MaskingFault Detection
Contact author(s)
wei cheng @ telecom-paristech fr
2020-06-16: last of 2 revisions
2019-08-13: received
See all versions
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Wei Cheng and Claude Carlet and Kouassi Goli and Sylvain Guilley and Jean-Luc Danger},
      title = {Detecting Faults in Inner Product Masking Scheme - IPM-FD: IPM with Fault Detection (extended version∗)},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/919},
      year = {2019},
      doi = {10.1007/s13389-020-00227-6},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
Note: In order to protect the privacy of readers, does not use cookies or embedded third party content.