Paper 2019/757

EverCrypt: A Fast, Verified, Cross-Platform Cryptographic Provider

Jonathan Protzenko
Bryan Parno
Aymeric Fromherz
Chris Hawblitzel
Marina Polubelova
Karthikeyan Bhargavan
Benjamin Beurdouche
Joonwon Choi
Antoine Delignat-Lavaud
Cedric Fournet
Natalia Kulatova
Tahina Ramananandro
Aseem Rastogi
Nikhil Swamy
Christoph Wintersteiger
Santiago Zanella-Beguelin

We present EverCrypt: a comprehensive collection of verified, high-performance cryptographic functionalities available via a carefully designed API. The API provably supports agility (choosing between multiple algorithms for the same functionality) and multiplexing (choosing between multiple implementations of the same algorithm). Through abstraction and zero-cost generic programming, we show how agility can simplify verification without sacrificing performance, and we demonstrate how C and assembly can be composed and verified against shared specifications. We substantiate the effectiveness of these techniques with new verified implementations (including hashes, Curve25519, and AES-GCM) whose performance matches or exceeds the best unverified implementations. We validate the API design with two high-performance verified case studies built atop EverCrypt, resulting in line-rate performance for a secure network protocol and a Merkle-tree library, used in a production blockchain, that supports 2.7 million insertions/sec. Altogether, EverCrypt consists of over 124K verified lines of specs, code, and proofs, and it produces over 29K lines of C and 14K lines of assembly code.

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Publication info
Published elsewhere. Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2020
verification secret-key cryptography elliptic curves
Contact author(s)
parno @ cmu edu
2022-09-25: last of 2 revisions
2019-07-02: received
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      author = {Jonathan Protzenko and Bryan Parno and Aymeric Fromherz and Chris Hawblitzel and Marina Polubelova and Karthikeyan Bhargavan and Benjamin Beurdouche and Joonwon Choi and Antoine Delignat-Lavaud and Cedric Fournet and Natalia Kulatova and Tahina Ramananandro and Aseem Rastogi and Nikhil Swamy and Christoph Wintersteiger and Santiago Zanella-Beguelin},
      title = {EverCrypt: A Fast, Verified, Cross-Platform Cryptographic Provider},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/757},
      year = {2019},
      doi = {10.1109/SP40000.2020.00114},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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