Paper 2019/631

Non-Uniformly Sound Certificates with Applications to Concurrent Zero-Knowledge

Cody Freitag, Ilan Komargodski, and Rafael Pass


We introduce the notion of non-uniformly sound certificates: succinct single-message (unidirectional) argument systems that satisfy a ``best-possible security'' against non-uniform polynomial-time attackers. In particular, no polynomial-time attacker with s bits of non-uniform advice can find significantly more than s accepting proofs for false statements. Our first result is a construction of non-uniformly sound certificates for all NP in the random oracle model, where the attacker's advice can depend arbitrarily on the random oracle. We next show that the existence of non-uniformly sound certificates for P (and collision resistant hash functions) yields a public-coin constant-round fully concurrent zero-knowledge argument for NP.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Published by the IACR in CRYPTO 2019
non-uniform certificatesconcurrent zero-knowledge
Contact author(s)
crf87 @ cornell edu
komargodski @ cornell edu
rnp3 @ cornell edu
2019-06-03: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Cody Freitag and Ilan Komargodski and Rafael Pass},
      title = {Non-Uniformly Sound Certificates with Applications to Concurrent Zero-Knowledge},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/631},
      year = {2019},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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