Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2019/575

On Abelian and Homomorphic Secret Sharing Schemes

Amir Jafari and Shahram Khazaei

Abstract: Abelian secret sharing schemes (SSS) are generalization of multi-linear SSS and similar to them, abelian schemes are homomorphic. There are numerous results on linear and multi-linear SSSs in the literature and a few ones on homomorphic SSSs too. Nevertheless, the abelian schemes have not taken that much attention. We present three main results on abelian and homomorphic SSSs in this paper: (1) abelian schemes are more powerful than multi-linear schemes (we achieve a constant factor improvement), (2) the information ratio of dual access structures are the same for the class of abelian schemes, and (3) every ideal homomorphic scheme can be transformed into an ideal multi-linear scheme with the same access structure.

Our results on abelian and homomorphic SSSs have been motivated by the following concerns and questions. All known linear rank inequities have been derived using the so-called common information property of random variables [Dougherty, Freiling and Zeger, 2009], and it is an open problem that if common information is complete for deriving all such inequalities (Q1). The common information property has also been used in linear programming to find lower bounds for the information ratio of access structures [Farràs, Kaced, Molleví and Padró, 2018] and it is an open problem that if the method is complete for finding the optimal information ratio for the class of multi-linear schemes (Q2). Also, it was realized by the latter authors that the obtained lower bound does not have a good behavior with respect to duality and it is an open problem that if this behavior is inherent to their method (Q3).

Our first result provides a negative answer to Q2. Even though, we are not able to completely answer Q1 and Q3, we have some observations about them.

Category / Keywords: foundations / Access structure, Duality, Abelian secret sharing, Homomorphic secret sharing, Ideal secret sharing

Date: received 27 May 2019, last revised 26 Feb 2020

Contact author: shahram khazaei at gmail com

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Version: 20200226:105723 (All versions of this report)

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