Paper 2019/535

SIKE Round 2 Speed Record on ARM Cortex-M4

Hwajeong soe, Amir Jalali, and Reza Azarderakhsh


We present the first practical software implementation of Supersingular Isogeny Key Encapsulation (SIKE) round 2, targeting NIST’s 1, 2, and 5 security levels on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 microcontrollers. The proposed library introduces a new speed record of SIKE protocol on the target platform. We achieved this record by adopting several state-of-the-art engineering techniques as well as highly-optimized hand-crafted assembly implementation of finite field arithmetic. In particular, we carefully redesign the previous optimized implementations of filed arithmetic on 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 platform and propose a set of novel techniques which are explicitly suitable for SIKE/SIDH primes. Moreover, the proposed arithmetic implementations are fully scalable to larger bit-length integers and can be adopted over different security levels. The benchmark result on STM32F4 Discovery board equipped with 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 microcontrollers shows that the entire key encapsulation over p434 takes about 326 million clock cycles (i.e. 1.94 seconds @168MHz). In contrast to the previous optimized implementation of the isogeny-based key exchange on low-power 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4, our performance evaluation shows feasibility of using SIKE mechanism on the target platform. In comparison to the most of the post-quantum candidates, SIKE requires an excessive number of arithmetic operations, resulting in significantly slower timings. However, its small key size makes this scheme as a promising candidate on low-end microcontrollers in the quantum era by ensuring the lower energy consumption for key transmission than other schemes.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
Post-quantum cryptographySIKEkey encapsulation mechanismfinite field arithmeticARM assemblyARM Cortex-M4
Contact author(s)
hwajeong84 @ gmail com
azarderakhsh @ gmail com
amirjalali65 @ gmail com
2019-05-22: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Hwajeong soe and Amir Jalali and Reza Azarderakhsh},
      title = {SIKE Round 2 Speed Record on ARM Cortex-M4},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/535},
      year = {2019},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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