Paper 2019/508

RingCT 3.0 for Blockchain Confidential Transaction: Shorter Size and Stronger Security

Tsz Hon Yuen, Shi-feng Sun, Joseph K. Liu, Man Ho Au, Muhammed F. Esgin, Qingzhao Zhang, and Dawu Gu


In this paper, we propose the most competent blockchain ring confidential transaction protocol (RingCT3.0) for protecting the privacy of the sender's identity, the recipient's identity and the confidentiality of the transaction amount. For a typical 2-input transaction with a ring size of 1024, the ring signature size of our RingCT3.0 protocol is 98% less than the ring signature size of the original RingCT1.0 protocol used in Monero. Taking the advantage of our compact RingCT3.0 transcript size, privacy-preserving cryptocurrencies can enjoy a much lower transaction fee which will have a significant impact to the crypto-economy. Our implementation result shows that our protocol outperforms existing solutions, in terms of efficiency and security. In addition to the significant improvement in terms of efficiency, our scheme is proven secure in a stronger security model. We remove the trusted setup assumption used in RingCT2.0. Our scheme is anonymous against ring insider (non-signing users who are included in the ring), while we show that the RingCT1.0 is not secure in this strong model. Our RingCT3.0 protocol relies on our brand new designed ring signature scheme as an underlying primitive, which is believed to be the most efficient ring signature scheme up-to-date (in terms of signature size) without trusted setup. Our ring signature scheme is derived from our novel design of an efficient set membership proof of n public keys, with the proof size of O(log n). It is the first set membership proof without trusted setup for public keys in the base group, instead of in the exponent. These two primitives are of independent interest.

Available format(s)
Public-key cryptography
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
confidential transactionring signaturesset membership proofblockchain
Contact author(s)
thyuen @ cs hku hk
2019-09-17: last of 2 revisions
2019-05-20: received
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Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Tsz Hon Yuen and Shi-feng Sun and Joseph K.  Liu and Man Ho Au and Muhammed F.  Esgin and Qingzhao Zhang and Dawu Gu},
      title = {RingCT 3.0 for Blockchain Confidential Transaction: Shorter Size and Stronger Security},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/508},
      year = {2019},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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