Paper 2019/420

Improving Speed of Dilithium’s Signing Procedure

Prasanna Ravi, Sourav Sen Gupta, Anupam Chattopadhyay, and Shivam Bhasin


Dilithium is a round 2 candidate for digital signature schemes in NIST initiative for post-quantum cryptographic schemes. Since Dilithium is built upon the “Fiat Shamir with Aborts” framework, its signing procedure performs rejection sampling of its signatures to ensure they do not leak information about the secret key. Thus, the signing procedure is iterative in nature with a number of rejected iterations, which serve as unnecessary overheads hampering its overall performance. As a first contribution, we propose an optimization that reduces the computations in the rejected iterations through early-evaluation of the conditional checks. This allows to perform an early detection of the rejection condition and reject a given iteration as early as possible. We also incorporate a number of standard optimizations such as unrolling and inlining to further improve the speed of the signing procedure. We incorporate and evaluate our optimizations over the software implementation of Dilithium on both the Intel Core i5-4460 and ARM Cortex-M4 CPUs. As a second contribution, we identify opportunities to present a more refined evaluation of Dilithium’s signing procedure in several scenarios where pre-computations can be carried out. We also evaluate the performance of our optimizations and the memory requirements for the pre-computed intermediates in the considered scenarios. We could yield speed-ups in the range of 6% upto 35%, considering all the aforementioned scenarios, thus presenting the fastest software implementation of Dilithium till date.

Available format(s)
Public-key cryptography
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
Lattice based cryptographyDilithiumdigital signaturesalgorithmic optimization
Contact author(s)
PRASANNA RAVI @ ntu edu sg
2019-10-18: last of 6 revisions
2019-04-27: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Prasanna Ravi and Sourav Sen Gupta and Anupam Chattopadhyay and Shivam Bhasin},
      title = {Improving Speed of Dilithium’s Signing Procedure},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/420},
      year = {2019},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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