Paper 2019/352

SoK: A Taxonomy for Layer-2 Scalability Related Protocols for Cryptocurrencies

Maxim Jourenko, Kanta Kurazumi, Mario Larangeira, and Keisuke Tanaka


Blockchain based systems, in particular cryptocurrencies, face a serious limitation: scalability. This holds, especially, in terms of number of transactions per second. Several alternatives are currently being pursued by both the research and practitioner communities. One venue for exploration is on protocols that do not constantly add transactions on the blockchain and therefore do not consume the blockchain's resources. This is done using off-chain transactions, i.e., protocols that minimize the interaction with the blockchain, also commonly known as Layer-2 approaches. This work relates several existing off-chain channel methods, also known as payment and state channels, channel network constructions methods, and other components as channel and network management protocols, e.g., routing nodes. All these components are crucial to keep the usability of the channel, and are often overlooked. For the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to propose a taxonomy for all the components of the Layer-2. We provide an extensive coverage on the state-of-art protocols available. We also outline their respective approaches, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
cryptographic protocolselectronic commerce and paymentblockchainoff-chainscalability
Contact author(s)
mario @ c titech ac jp
mario larangeira @ iohk io
2019-04-03: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Maxim Jourenko and Kanta Kurazumi and Mario Larangeira and Keisuke Tanaka},
      title = {SoK: A Taxonomy for Layer-2 Scalability Related Protocols for Cryptocurrencies},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/352},
      year = {2019},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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