Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2019/1436

Algebraic and Euclidean Lattices: Optimal Lattice Reduction and Beyond

Paul Kirchner and Thomas Espitau and Pierre-Alain Fouque

Abstract: We introduce a framework generalizing lattice reduction algorithms to module lattices in order to practically and efficiently solve the $\gamma$-Hermite Module-SVP problem over arbitrary cyclotomic fields. The core idea is to exploit the structure of the subfields for designing a doubly-recursive strategy of reduction: both recursive in the rank of the module and in the field we are working in. Besides, we demonstrate how to leverage the inherent symplectic geometry existing in the tower of fields to provide a significant speed-up of the reduction for rank two modules. The recursive strategy over the rank can also be applied to the reduction of Euclidean lattices, and we can perform a reduction in asymptotically almost the same time as matrix multiplication. As a byproduct of the design of these fast reductions, we also generalize to all cyclotomic fields and provide speedups for many previous number theoretical algorithms.

Quantitatively, we show that a module of rank 2 over a cyclotomic field of degree $n$ can be heuristically reduced within approximation factor $2^{\tilde{O}(n)}$ in time $\tilde{O}(n^2B)$, where $B$ is the bitlength of the entries. For $B$ large enough, this complexity shrinks to $\tilde{O}(n^{\log_2 3}B)$. This last result is particularly striking as it goes below the estimate of $n^2B$ swaps given by the classical analysis of the LLL algorithm using the so-called potential.

Finally, all this framework is fully parallelizable, and we provide a full implementation. We apply it to break multilinear cryptographic candidates on concrete proposed parameters. We were able to reduce matrices of dimension 4096 with 6675-bit integers in 4 days, which is more than a million times faster than previous state-of-the-art implementations. Eventually, we demonstrate a quasicubic time for the Gentry-Szydlo algorithm which finds a generator given the relative norm and a basis of an ideal. This algorithm is important in cryptanalysis and requires efficient ideal multiplications and lattice reductions; as such we can practically use it in dimension 1024.

Category / Keywords: public-key cryptography / Lattice reduction, LLL, cyclotomic fields, ideal lattice, symplectic group

Date: received 10 Dec 2019, last revised 19 Feb 2020

Contact author: t espitau at gmail com

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20200219:190714 (All versions of this report)

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