Paper 2019/1400

RedShift: Transparent SNARKs from List Polynomial Commitment IOPs

Assimakis Kattis, Konstantin Panarin, and Alexander Vlasov


We introduce an efficient transformation from univariate polynomial commitment based zk-SNARKs to their fully transparent counterparts. The transformation is achieved with the help of a new IOP primitive which we call a list polynomial commitment. This primitive is applicable for preprocessing zk-SNARKs over both prime and binary fields. We present the primitive itself along with a soundness analysis of the transformation and instantiate it with an existing universal proof system. We also present benchmarks for a proof of concept implementation alongside a comparison with a non-transparent alternative based on Kate commitments. Our results show competitive efficiency both in terms of proof size and generation times at large security levels.

Note: Length of this paper is quite substantial, so we've moved as much as possible to appendix for ease of reading.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
polynomial commitmentszero-knowledge proofsproximity testingverifiable computation
Contact author(s)
kattis @ cs nyu edu
kp @ matterlabs dev
av @ matterlabs dev
2019-12-06: revised
2019-12-04: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Assimakis Kattis and Konstantin Panarin and Alexander Vlasov},
      title = {RedShift: Transparent SNARKs from List Polynomial Commitment IOPs},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/1400},
      year = {2019},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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