Paper 2019/1297

Exploring Energy Efficient Quantum-resistant Signal Processing Using Array Processors

Hamid Nejatollahi, Sina Shahhosseini, Rosario Cammarota, and Nikil Dutt


Quantum computers threaten to compromise public-key cryptography schemes such as DSA and ECDSA in polynomial time, which poses an imminent threat to secure signal processing. The cryptography community has responded with the development and standardization of post-quantum cryptography (PQC) algorithms, a class of public-key algorithms based on hard problems that no known quantum algorithms can solve in polynomial time. Ring learning with error (RLWE) lattice- based cryptographic (LBC) protocols are one of the most promising families of PQC schemes in terms of efficiency and versatility. Two common methods to compute polynomial multiplication, the most compute-intensive routine in the RLWE schemes are convolutions and Number Theoretic Transform (NTT). In this work, we explore the energy efficiency of polynomial multiplier using systolic architecture for the first time. As an early exploration, we design two high-throughput systolic array polynomial multipliers, including NTT-based and convolution-based, and compare them to our low-cost sequential (non-systolic) NTT-based multiplier. Our sequential NTT-based multiplier achieves more than 3x speedup over the state-of-the-art FGPA implementation of the polynomial multiplier in the NewHope-Simple key exchange mechanism on a low-cost Artix7 FPGA. When synthesized on a Zynq UltraScale+ FPGA, the NTT-based systolic and convolution-based systolic designs achieve on average 1.7x and 7.5x speedup over our sequential NTT-based multiplier respectively, which can lead to generating over 2x more signatures per second by CRYSTALS-Dilithium, a PQC digital signature scheme. These explorations will help designers select the right PQC implementations for making future signal processing applications quantum- resistant.

Available format(s)
Public-key cryptography
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
Public-Key CryptographyLattice-based CryptographyAccelerationNumber Theoretic TransformSystolic Array
Contact author(s)
hnejatol @ uci edu
2019-11-11: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Hamid Nejatollahi and Sina Shahhosseini and Rosario Cammarota and Nikil Dutt},
      title = {Exploring Energy Efficient Quantum-resistant Signal Processing Using Array Processors},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/1297},
      year = {2019},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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