Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2019/1224

Practical Volume-Based Attacks on Encrypted Databases

Rishabh Poddar and Stephanie Wang and Jianan Lu and Raluca Ada Popa

Abstract: Recent years have seen an increased interest towards strong security primitives for encrypted databases (such as oblivious protocols), that hide the access patterns of query execution, and reveal only the volume of results. However, recent work has shown that even volume leakage can enable the reconstruction of entire columns in the database. Yet, existing attacks rely on a set of assumptions that are unrealistic in practice: for example, they (i) require a large number of queries to be issued by the user, or (ii) assume certain distributions on the queries or underlying data (e.g., that the queries are distributed uniformly at random, or that the database does not contain missing values).

In this work, we present new attacks for recovering the content of individual user queries, assuming no leakage from the system except the number of results and avoiding the limiting assumptions above. Unlike prior attacks, our attacks require only a single query to be issued by the user for recovering the keyword. Furthermore, our attacks make no assumptions about the distribution of issued queries or the underlying data. Instead, our key insight is to exploit the behavior of real-world applications.

We start by surveying 11 applications to identify two key characteristics that can be exploited by attackers -- (i) file injection, and (ii) automatic query replay. We present attacks that leverage these two properties in concert with volume leakage, independent of the details of any encrypted database system. Subsequently, we perform an attack on the real Gmail web client by simulating a server-side adversary. Our attack on Gmail completes within a matter of minutes, demonstrating the feasibility of our techniques. We also present three ancillary attacks for situations when certain mitigation strategies are employed.

Category / Keywords: applications / Encrypted databases, ORAM, volume leakage, attacks

Original Publication (in the same form): EuroS&P 2020

Date: received 17 Oct 2019, last revised 17 Apr 2020

Contact author: rishabhp at eecs berkeley edu

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20200417:165956 (All versions of this report)

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